A number of questions regarding ATADA policies have been raised since the May 22, 2017 Santa Fe symposium, which included coverage of the ATADA Voluntary Returns program and the amended ATADA Bylaws, and presented ATADA’s legal response to the STOP Act. This note is to address some of those questions. We strongly encourage all members to review the changes to Articles X and XI in the ATADA Bylaws.

ATADA is a professional business organization and its primary interest is to protect the business interests of its members. ATADA remains fully committed to its original objectives, as stated on the Bylaws and Policies page of the ATADA website:

“…We support the lawful circulation, trade, collection, preservation, appreciation, and study of art and artifacts from diverse cultures. Our objectives are to promote ethical and professional conduct among art dealers, to encourage the responsible collecting, research, and study of tribal arts and culture, and to educate the public in the contribution of tribal cultures to the wealth of human experience.”

ATADA is following a multi-pronged path in order to effect positive change in the STOP Act and to increase understanding between tribes, legislators and the art trade. Along with the Voluntary Returns program and legislative input, recent amendments to the ATADA Bylaws have been enacted by the ATADA Board.

These amendments are intended to codify standard best business practices and to harmonize ATADA’s due diligence policies with those of other art trade organizations. In this, ATADA is in line with other professional art organizations in Europe and the US. Proper due diligence will protect ATADA members from false claims of poor organization, money laundering or dealing in stolen objects. These due diligence standards can be found under the Bylaws’ Article X – Trade Practices, Ethics, and Guarantees.

The Bylaws also establish ethical guidelines for ATADA members with respect to the sale of certain limited types of objects. Article X states that ATADA dealers will not deal in a very limited subset of objects that are “known to be of important current sacred, communal use to Native American tribal communities.” These terms do not include the word “ceremonial,” which is often too broadly applied. Objects ATADA has identified as inappropriate to sell are “Zuni war gods, Acoma and Laguna flat and cylinder dolls, Hopi ‘friends’, and Navajo masks,” “altar elements and items from shrines belonging to the community.” Sale of these items is already not allowed in many of the shows in which ATADA dealers sell.

Article X also states that, “ATADA does not regard items made for commercial or individual use by Native American artisans as sacred, or communal, regardless of age.” Defending this legal trade in Native American and other tribal objects is an essential task for ATADA, as a primary representative of the tribal art trade in the U.S. and internationally.


ATADA has not yet seen a text of the new 2017 STOP Act, although we are in discussions with some of the drafters of the coming legislation. We have already responded to a summary provided to us with what we believe is helpful criticism of some elements, and with praise for the removal of a number of harmful provisions and for its inclusion of a “voluntary returns” program. We are pleased that those involved in drafting the Act believe that a voluntary returns program such as ATADA has initiated will do more than any federal legislation to bring important objects back to tribes. ATADA would like to see a STOP Act that is constitutionally sound, does not jeopardize US citizens’ property rights, facilitates and strengthens sovereign tribal institutions and encourages tribes to enact their own laws.

ATADA’s own Voluntary Returns program continues to bring important objects back to tribes. To ATADA’s knowledge, every item returned through this program to tribes has been legally purchased and owned. All returns are voluntary. ATADA is working hard to obtain documentation from the tribes so that donors can receive an appropriate tax deduction for these gifts.

ATADA efforts, both legislatively and through the Voluntary Returns program, have been successful in raising public and Congressional consciousness of the importance of the lawful trade and of flaws in recent legislation, including the 2016 TAAR Act and the 2016 STOP Act.

 ATADA encourages members to send questions about ATADA’s policies and about the symposium to David Ezziddine at When you write, please let us know if we may share your questions in a group answer via email to the membership.

Understanding Cultural Property: A Path to Healing Through Communcation

Save the Date!!  May 22, 2017 • Santa Fe, NM

When the 2016 STOP ACT was introduced, ATADA & SAR came together to create better communication and understanding of the controversial issues surrounding the proposed legislation. This May, ATADA & SAR will jointly present the symposium, Understanding Cultural Property: A Path to Healing Through Communication. 

This event is Monday, May 22, 2017, in the Eldorado Ballroom at the Eldorado Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

The event is open to the public; registration is just $35 for a full day (9-4:30).

This symposium is an important dialog for all people involved in the Native American art community, and beyond.  A full day of presentations and panel discussions will be given by tribal representatives, specialized legal counsel, art professionals, museum personnel, collectors, and various other interest groups.  Here are some topics slated for consideration throughout the day: national legal experts will cover the proposed legislative measures; tribal religious and government representatives will share their contemporary viewpoints; art market professionals and collectors will discuss collecting histories and the potential negative economic impact of unclearly written bills.

The goal is not only to inform the public about the importance, and primary consideration, of tribal rights to consultation and self-determination, but also to find positive and respectful, cooperative solutions with the national private art market that could actually enhance, rather than harm, southwest regional and tribal economic interests.  This momentous occasion will also afford ATADA the opportunity to introduce a developing Voluntary Returns initiative that seeks to assist in bringing privately owned, important tribal religious objects of cultural patrimony, directly back to the tribes. 

We should all be forward-thinking: this engagement hopes to produce more than political solutions—it aims to start a historical healing process, encourage tribal empowerment, and develop future understanding with a market that supports both antique and contemporary tribal artistic traditions. 

Background information on the law and the issues being grappled with: 

At SAR, Panelists Negotiate Repatriation and the Law

The School for Advanced Research (SAR), in Santa Fe, New Mexico, presented the final installment of a Speaker Series celebrating SAR’s 110th anniversary: an April 19th panel titled, At the Forefront of Repatriation: New Policy and Impact Beyond the United States. The program grappled with the specifics of proposed legislation drafted in response to the sales of Hopi, Zuni, Acoma, and Navajo artifacts. The Safeguard Tribal Objects of Patrimony (STOP) Act was introduced in Congress in 2016 expressly to halt export of Native American objects.

Panelists included Honor Keeler, Director of the International Repatriation Project for the Association on American Indian Affairs (AAIA); Gregory Smith, of Hobbs, Straus, Dean & Walker, a Washington DC Indian Law specialist firm, and Kate Fitz Gibbon, of Fitz Gibbon Law, a cultural property lawyer representing the Antique Tribal Arts Dealers Association (ATADA). Brian Vallo, Director of the Indian Arts Research Center at SAR, acted as moderator.  

Although the 2016 STOP Act failed to pass through House and Senate committees, an amended version is expected to be introduced in Congress later this year. The SAR panelists laid out their differences regarding this proposed legislation. Honor Keeler spoke movingly about the historic loss of artifacts through US government and private sector abuses, and questioned whether items collected over the last 520 years, even if collected legally, were collected with “informed indigenous consent.” She said that the existence of a market for Indian artifacts promotes looting. Making the right contacts with foreign governments was key to repatriation of ancestral remains, and she believed that the STOP Act would make a difference, since French courts did not recognize communally based claims by tribes or deal with them as sovereign entities. She felt that returning ceremonial items and ancestral remains was a human rights issue.

Gregory Smith noted the passage through Congress in 2016 of a non-binding joint resolution, which condemned illegal trafficking and stated that sacred items should be returned to the tribes. Passage of this resolution indicated clear bipartisan Congressional support for STOP, which was shared by the whole New Mexico delegation. Smith stated that tribes don’t like the emphasis on “ownership” and on current owner or collector’s rights of property. He asked, how do we define private property? Most of the time, the definitions of private property are hurtful to tribes and not in their best interest. He also noted that STOP has not yet been reintroduced, because it is being reworked…so the provisions aren’t set.  He described STOP as a blunt instrument meant to invoke conversation.

Fitz Gibbon agreed completely that ancestral remains and communally owned ceremonial objects should return to tribes, but said that STOP would not achieve that. She pointed out that despite the legislation’s intent to return artifacts to the tribes, it was not a clear declaration of ownership by the tribe but an export law. An export law would not actually strengthen the tribes’ legal position in the French courts, since France permits sale of objects from many nations with export laws. Furthermore, in the US, STOP could vastly expand the application of NAGPRA to private citizens, and deny American collectors the fair notice and due process required by the Constitution. She supported the tribes’ rights to keep secret information private, but since no list of sacred items was possible, according to the tribes, and there was no permitting system for the 568 US tribes, she questioned whether either exporters or US Customs officers could ever have the necessary knowledge to properly enforce the STOP Act, especially when a ten-year jail sentence could result.

Further, the law’s immunity provision implied that all collecting was illegal, when it was not, and telling collectors not to buy Indian art would not only negatively impact New Mexico’s economy and cultural tourism in general, but also frighten existing collectors into returning items that had nothing to do with religion. Native artisans dependent on sales were particularly vulnerable, as tribal leaders did not exclude new objects from the “ceremonial” category, and the STOP Act potentially covered all.

She pointed instead to the new Voluntary Returns Program initiated by ATADA, which, even after a short time, has been very successful in returning dozens of important ceremonial objects to the tribes. Combined with educating collectors and the public that certain items should not be sold, this Voluntary Returns program was a model for bringing items home in a respectful manner.

Regardless of disagreements regarding method, the discussions were historic first steps in bringing tribes and the art community together and in bringing key ceremonial objects back to the tribes.  As one audience member remarked, “It’s the best panel we’ve had in the whole series because people were willing to disagree with each other.” Another said that the difficult situation that national tribes are in is more than political, so there need to be more than just political solutions.

Presented by:

The School for Advanced Research (SAR) 
SAR is a research center located in Santa Fe, New Mexico, which supports advanced scholarship and creativity in the social sciences, the humanities, and Native American art.

The Antique Tribal Art Dealers Association (ATADA)
ATADA is an international organization whose art dealer, collector, and museum members are located primarily in the US. ATADA focuses on professional development and best practices for the trade in historic and contemporary tribal, ethnographic, and indigenous arts from around the world. 

This Symposium is made possible, in part, by the generous support of

Current information on confirmed speakers, panel titles and schedules will be updated on the Symposium Information page as it becomes available.  Or contact David Ezziddine at for more information.